vara bungas: Kara lauka dzīvošanas un izdzīvošanas padomi “The Fieldcraft Book“. Vamzaķiem un jaunsargiem obligātā lasāmviela, tas pats attiecas uz 30 dienu “minimāli pietiekamās apmācības” upuriem. Pārējie karotāji ar garantiju atradīs šajā USMC pamācībā kaut ko jaunu un viņu skill level automātiski pieaugs vismaz līdz 80.
Interesanti, ka rokasgrāmatas saturs manāmi pakārtots (sub)arktikas, nevis tuksneša operācijām.
Ja tomēr nav laika iedziļināties, tad jāņem vērā vismaz šos anti-dronu ieteikumus:
- UAS. One of the most distinguishable key identifying features of vehicles from the air is cast shadow. When overhead concealment is not available, passive measures for mitigating cast shadow include parking vehicles in wide ditches, dried river beds (with due caution for flash floods), and between micro-terrain.
- Due to shine, burlap sanbags are preferred over synthetic/plastic ones. The shine from synthetic sandbags can be seen from sUAS from distances in excess of 500 meters. Additionally, as burlap sandbags become unserviceable for use, Marines can strip them for jute
- Route planning should include maximum use of overhead concealment. Often, snow-laden environments have considerable alpine trees. Use the trees to mask the track of the patrol from enemy UAS.
- The fact is enemy UAS will be a theme of any future conflict, and will grow more persistent. Currently, there is no consistent technology based solution. There is however, a growing list of field craft tips and field TTPs that Marines can use to mitigate of the risk of being spotted by UAS.
- Route Selection Matters. Confine movements to shadows (as in the shadows of buildings) or the treeline. Electro-optical instruments currently have a difficult time seeing shadow, especially on bright sunny days.When the possibility of EN UAS observation is high, move slow.
- Rapid movements are easier for drone operators to see. When alerted, Marines should halt if tactically feasible, and slowly get into a covered, prone position. Do not run.
- Prone signatures are difficult for EN-UAS to see, especially above 500 ft AGL.
- Fighting positions must include overhead concealment or cover. Overhead concealment must include local vegetation. Ponchos and poncho liners are visible to EO and thermal optics.
- Tarps are shiny, and when warm, sag—creating noticeable shadow.
- Thermal Crossover Matters. Thermal crossover is a period of time in the early morning and evening when the ambient air temperature is generally the same as the ground temperature. Operating at dusk and sunset—during thermal crossover—masks thermal signatures of Marines. Conversely, EO cameras in EN UAS can easily see the long shadows cast during morning and evening. An average human can cast a shadow 12 feet long during morning or evening. Marines get into the prone to avoid detection, or pick routes that avoid direct sunlight during these times.
- During MOUT, Marines must stay deeper in rooms with windows that don’t have glass. Marines near windows are easily detectable by EN UAS thermal cameras. Each area has a natural thermal signature. For example, in the desert, wadi and dried riverbeds tend to stay ‘hotter’ at night. Consider them for night movements.
- During night movements, consider keeping some form of concealment (poncho liner, ghillie blanket, etc) handy for a hasty counter-drone action.
- Be aware of the sun; savvy EN UAS operators will follow your unit by masking EN UAS in the sun. Shadows Matter. During thermal crossover, when the sun is low on the horizon, shadows can extend 17’ or more (picture, right)